Textile calculations and Definitions

What is Uniformity Index UNF in cotton testing?

Uniformity Index of UNFI is a ration of mean length with upper half mean length. it is calculated by HVI or Fibrogram cotton testing instruments.

We are giving the following details for the ideal or poor counts of Uniformity.
1. Uniformity Index of Unf below 77 is considered very low or poor uniformity.
2. Uniformity index between the range of 77 to 80 is called low uniformity.
3. Uniformity Index Unf from 80 to 84 is considered medium level. Mostly normal quality cotton contains this range.
4. Uniformity Index 85 to 87 is considered high level uniformity.
5. Uniformity Index above 87 is considered a very high level of uniformity.

What is (SFI) Short Fiber Index In cotton HVI report.

SFI Short fiber index is a very important parameter in cotton results as it determined the ratio of short fiber in cotton. SFI indicates the %age of fiber having less than half inch length. This ratio is counted on High Volume Instrument HVI, one of the latest and best cotton testing instruments being used in the textile sector. The higher SFI is usually considered bad in cotton results.

SFI below 6.00 is an indication that cotton has very less short fiber which is good for cotton consumers. But this sort of cotton is rarely available.

Normally and mostly cotton contain SFI between the range of 6 to 9 and it’s acceptable for most cotton buyers.

SFI short fiber index from 10 to 13 is considered a little higher side ratio but to some extent acceptable for the cotton consumers.

SFI short fiber index above 14 is usually not acceptable for yarn manufacturers who want to make fine quality yarns and they avoid buying cotton with such high value of SFI.

What is Rd and +b in cotton and its definition?

Both Rd and +b are the color grade parameters for cotton. Rd describes the reflectance in cotton. Higher rd indicates the brightness in cotton while lower rd reflects the dullness or grey look in cotton. Cotton having higher rd is considered the better cotton and it also adds to its value and price.
While +b in cotton indicates the yellowness in cotton. Both these units are tested or measured on fiber testing machine HVI (High Volume Instrument) Earlier Fibro graph machine was used to test the cotton results but now a days majority of labs and mills use HVI machine with latest features.

What is Imperfection or IPI in Textile yarn?

Imperfections or IPI indicate the evenness or unevenness in yarn. If the IPI / Imperfection level is high in yarn it indicates that the quality of yarn is not good. If the imperfection or IPI count is less it reflects the good quality yarn.

A lot of people ask about how to calculate or count the imperfection. its counting is very simple after reading our post.

To find the imperfection in yarn you need to have its Uster Testing Report. There you will find several colums like U%, cvb, thin, thick, neps and hairiness Etc.

Usually for ring spun yarn to count the imperfection index we take the total of (Thin-50% + Thick+50% + Neps+200 per kilometer). The total of these three parameters is called imperfection or IPI.

For Open End or Autocoro yarn to count the imperfection index we take the total of (Thin-50% + Thick+50% + Neps+280 per kilometer). The total of these three parameters is called imperfection or IPI.

What is difference between ring spun, open end and Autocoro yarn

Ring spun yarn is a better quality yarn with higher prices and higher cost of production as compare to open end or Autocoro yarns.
Ring spun yarn factory consist of the following manufacturing processes.
1. Blow Room.
2. Carding.
3. Drawing.
4. Combers or Combing process.
5. Simplex
6. Ring
7. Winding or Auto cone department
Above is the complete spinning or yarn manufacturing process engage in the ring spun yarn production.

The open end or Autocoro is same till Drawing process but after that all work is done by rotor machine which decrease the production cost but at the same time as high draft is given so the quality of yarn suffered due to high draft. This factor also affects the quality of yarns. In ring we hae wide range of options for yarn counts but in open end or autocoro we can produce limited number of yarn counts.

Following processes are engaged in open end or autocoro yarn manufacturing.
1. Blow Room.
2. Carding.
3. Drawing
4. Rotor machines.

What is difference between Open End and Autocoro Yarns.

There is no major difference between open end and autocoro yarns. The simple difference is that auto coro yarn is produced on latest machines with same manufacturing system while open end yarn is produced on old open-end machines.

Open End machine is the older version of machines. It can mostly not produce finer or higher number of counts above 20/1 oe although We can produce up to 30/1 on open end machines but we have to decrease the machine speed which decrease the production and increase the production cost. Mostly coarser counts from 6/1 oe to 16/1 oe or 20/1 oe is produced on it.

Auto Coro is the latest machine having the ability to produce yarns of fine quality with higher speed. its count range is also higher and its drafting system allow you to produce yarn counts up to 60/1 although mainly people prefer to produce yarn counts till 40/1. Autocoro production capacity is also very high as compare with open end machine.

Hope you have under stood the difference in open end and auto coro yarns. In case of any confusion please drop your question in below comments section.

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What is difference between Viscose, Modal and Lyocell Fiber

Viscose, Modal and Lyocell fibers are made from tree or plant fibers after cellulosic process. Mainly soyabean, bamboo or even cotton plants are used to make this fiber. Some other plants are also used to produce Viscose, Modal and Lyocell. These fibers are also called Cellulose fibers.

Now question arises what is the difference between Viscose and Modal or what is the difference between Viscose and Lyocell or What is the difference between Modal and Lyocell.
Its answer is quite simple. which we can describe you with the example of a laptop. Like we go to the shop and ask the shopkeeper about its specification. Shopkeeper told us that this laptop is 1st generation other one with better performance is 2nd generation and this one is its 3rd generation and best of all.
Same is the case with Viscose, Modal and Lyocell.
Difference between Viscose fiber, Modal fiber and Lyocell fiber

  1. Viscose is the first generation out of these three.
  2. Modal is the 2nd generation with better quality and strength.
  3. Lyocell is the 3rd and best among these three.

Hope you have now better understanding about the difference between Viscose, Modal and Lyocell.

If you have any more question please feel free to write us in comment section.

What is Micronaire or Mic In Cotton?

What is definition of MIC or Micronaire in cotton complete description or definition

Micronaire or MIC value is achieved by putting a small quantity of cotton in the chamber of cotton testing machine. It defines the fiber maturity and its fineness.

What is MIC G0
If MIC value is below 2.4 it is called MIC G0

What is MIC G1 in cotton
Mic value between the range of 2.5 to 2.6 is called MIC G1

What is MIC G2 in cotton:
Mic value between the range of 2.7 to 2.9 is called MIC G2

What is MIC G3 in cotton
Mic value between the range of 3.0 to 3.2 is called MIC G3

What is MIC G4 in cotton:
Mic value between the range of 3.3 to 3.4 is called MIC G4

What is MIC G5 in cotton:
This is the standard range of mic for good quality cotton. Its range is from 3.5 to 4.9.

What is MIC G6 in cotton:
Mic value between the range of 5.0 to 5.2 is called MIC G6.

What is MIC G7 in cotton:
If the MIC value of cotton is 5.3 or above it is called MIC G7.

What is Yarn Count in Textile? – Yarn Count Definition

Yarn count is a numerical value of yarn to define the thickness, thinness, fineness or weight of the yarn.

Yarn count means number of hanks in 01 pound of yarn.

After the above definition question arises in the minds of learners that what is hank?

Hank is a linear value. 01 hank is equal to 840 yards. So, if the length of one pound of yarn is equal to 840 yard then the numeric value of that yarn is one count. Higher the count number mean thinner or light weight the yarn will be. the lower the yarn count number thicker the yarn will be.

Yarns are made with numbers of natural and man-made fibers. Mostly we find Cotton yarns, Polyester yarns, Viscose yarns, Acrylic yarns, Linen yarns, Bamboo yarns, Hemp yarns or blended yarns with mixture of any fibers mentions above.

We have tried our best to explain the yarn count definition in simple and common words so that any beginner learner may understand it easily. If you need any more information please feel free to drop your questions in the comment box below and we will do our best to resolve your problem and would love to teach you what we can.