Textile calculations and Definitions

What is zero twist yarn and how is it produced?

Zero twist yarn is a type of yarn that is made by twisting two or more strands of yarn together in the opposite direction to that in which they were originally spun. This gives the yarn a higher twist rate and makes it stronger and more durable. It is often used in carpets, towels and rugs because it can withstand heavy wear and tear.

In this process initially yarn is produced on spinning machines like a normal procedure and then it is doubled with a yarn called PVA. PVA is a yarn which dissolved in water after washing at a certain temperature. After doubling the normal yarn with PVA it is untwisted on a twisting machine. This process untwists the yarn and PVA lapped this yarn and keep the fibers joint with each other. Later after converting it into fabric it is washed in hot water and the PVA is dissolved in this process. This fabric is very soft and skin friendly.

Below are given some more details about its importance and end use of zero twist yarn.

Zero twist yarn is a type of yarn that is made without any twisting. The fibers are simply laid out in parallel and held together by a binder. This results in a yarn that is very strong and does not easily break or fray. Zero twist yarns are often used in carpeting and other heavy-duty applications.

When it comes to yarn, there are a lot of different types on the market. But what exactly is zero twist yarn? Zero twist yarn is made from fibers that are twisted together in the opposite direction of traditional yarn. This process makes the yarn stronger and less likely to break or unravel. It also gives it a unique texture that’s different from other types of yarn. If you’re looking for a durable yarn that’s still soft and has a unique texture, zero twist yarn is a great option. It’s perfect for projects like blankets, hats, and scarves. And because it’s so strong, it can even be used for projects like rugs or upholstery.

Zero twist yarn is a type of yarn that is made without any twisting. The yarn is made by first spinning the fiber into a long, thin strand. This strand is then fed through a machine that twists it into a coil. The coil is then fed through another machine that untwists it, resulting in a yarn that is both strong and smooth. Zero twist yarn is often used in applications where strength and durability are important, such as in rope or twine. It can also be used in applications where a smooth surface is desired, such as in knitting or crochet.

Fiber Properties with its complete description

List of some major fibers used in textile industry along with their description and properties.

1. What is Bamboo Fiber

Bamboo fiber is made from the inner pith of the bamboo stalk. Bamboo fiber will not break down like other fibers, so it’s perfect for making cloth that won’t wear out as quickly. It’s also hypoallergenic and completely biodegradable

2. What is Hemp Fiber

Hemp is considered to be one of the most versatile plant fibers on earth. Hemp is a renewable resource, which can be grown without depleting the soil or contaminating the water supply. Hemp fibers are soft and pliable and work well with a variety of fabrics, such as cotton, linen, wool, and silk. The strength of hemp is comparable to that of cotton, however its natural resistance to pests and rot makes it ideal for clothing.

Hemp fiber is one of the oldest plant fibers in history, dating back over 12,000 years. It was used for clothing, paper and a host of other items. Hemp is verifiably renewable and produces hemp fiber processing machines on a large scale.

Hemp fiber is soft and warm, without the static of other fibers. It has even been compared to cashmere due to its tactile nature. The fiber itself can be used for making clothes and other pieces of clothing or furniture items, or can be mixed with another fiber such as cotton to form a yarn that you weave into your favorite project.

3. What is Lyocell Fiber

Lyocell fiber, Eco-friendly and very soft. This fiber has a silky feel, is fast wicking and dries quickly. The dyeable lyocell fiber can resist staining better than some other types of synthetic fibers.

Lyocell fiber, not to be confused with viscose fiber, is simply a renewable, cellulosic and biodegradable fiber derived from renewable resources like corn husks. Lyocell fibers have more than 80% of its total weight as cellulose and can contain up to 30% protein (by weight). The lyocell yarn can have different varieties such as golden yellow, off-white and white.

Lyocell is a textile fiber made from wood pulp, extracted from eucalyptus trees. It is spun into yarn and woven for various clothing items such as T-shirts and pants.

4. What is Corn Fiber

Corn fiber is produced from corn after the milling process. The main polysaccharide is called starch, which is composed of long chains of glucose units, and cut into pieces with several types of adjuncts. Corn fiber has a polarity in the degree than starch.

5. What is Banana Fiber

Banana fiber is soft and very fine in texture, making it ideal for delicate yarns. It is also extremely absorbent, which means that it holds more moisture than many other fibers.

6. What is Ramie Fiber

Ramie fiber is made from the leaves of the ramie plant, a plant native to Asia. Ramie can be spun into strong, coarse yarns and woven into fabrics on looms. It is used in wearable textiles both for its strength and softness.
Ramie fabric, or Ramie-Cotton, is a traditional Asian fabric that consists of 100% ramie (a natural fiber) long staple cotton yarns woven into a wide-width cotton textile. This naturally dyed fabric has a high degree of softness and durability

7. What is Flax or Linen Fiber

Flax or linen fiber is the fiber obtained from the seeds of flax. Flax or linen fiber is a natural fiber that behaves like viscose, but is not as soft. It has a shine, much like silk but with less weight. Flax or linen fiber can be crafted into yarns or textiles and is used in many applications including men’s wear; fabrics for baby dressings and liners; home furnishings; upholstery; drapery fabric; upholstery and headwear; apparel and accessories; bedding items such as mattresses and pillows

8. What is Jute Fiber

Jute fiber is the most abundant natural fiber of Bangladesh. Jute staple fiber is produced by retting and dissolving the jute fibers in water. The resulting suspension of cellulose hydrocolloids is then beaten together with a mechanical roller at high speed, becoming a dense, compressed web or sheet which is thinner than human hairs. Jute fiber is used in textile industries for yarn production. Jute fiber is used to make rope and twine, including sail rope and gaskets. It is also used in the expression paper industry as insulation.

9. Complete description of Wool Fiber

Wool is a natural fiber which has been used for centuries as an essential textile and now suits many different purposes. Wool is important in quality textiles because it insulates, protects against cold and hot temperatures and prevents itchy skin. Wool can also be dyed in various shades of color depending on the manufacturer.
Wool fiber is a fiber obtained from the fleece of an animal, mostly sheep, but also goats and alpacas. This fiber is traditionally used to make cloth, but can also be used in other textile applications. Wool fibers are often harvested from sheep shearing during the autumn, when they shed their fur.
Wool is the most valuable natural fiber in the world. It’s used for making cloth, clothing, insulation, and even high-end carpets and rugs. Wool fibers must be treated to protect them from pests and mildew.

10. What is Coolmax Fiber

Coolmax fiber is specially designed to help you stay cool and maintain a comfortable temperature while you work out, or play sports. The porous surface allows perspiration to ventilate, while the low-density structure retains warmth without soaking up moisture. Coolmax is lightweight, breathable, and odor resistant—everything you need to stay cool while working hard.

Coolmax fiber is a high-performance microfiber material used in thousands of everyday products. It’s been a best seller for decades, and is still our most popular fiber!

Coolmax fiber is a striking innovation and the ultimate textile fiber. It’s woven into a durable ground cloth fabric which feels soft, breathable and comfortable against the skin in a variety of textile applications.

11. What is Hollow Fiber

Hollow fiber is a product manufactured from internal and external cotton linters or flax fibers. They are packaged in different ways to suit the end use and application: hollow, elongated, coreless, microporous and catalytic etc.

12. What is Lotus Fiber

Lotus fiber is made with the stem of lotus. Lotus fiber fabric is a flexible fiber composed of 60% polyester, 25% silk and 15 % merino wool. The end use of Lotus fiber is primarily used in production of fine knit fabrics such as yarn balls, yarn roving and weaving.

13. What is Pineapple Fiber or Pina Fiber

Pineapple fiber is made or extracted from the pine apple leaves. Another name used for this fiber is Pina Fiber.

14. What is Nano Fiber

Nano fiber is synthetic fiber with a very fine structure. It is a carbon fiber with less than 100 diameter.

15. What is Micro Fiber

Micro fiber is a fiber with less than 1 Denier. This is the among the thinnest fiber being used in textile industry. Micro fiber is mostly made with Polyester and Polyamide. The end use of micro fiber is towel and cleaning accessories. The fabrics made with this fiber are commonly used for cars and glass cleaning as it has the ability to pick up the smallest pieces of dust.

16. What is Milk Fiber

Milk fiber is a product made with bio engineering and wet spinning process. Milk is initially dehydrated and then this fiber is extracted from its proteins. Its end use is mostly kids garments and fine quality under garments. This fiber can be mixed with several fibers like cotton, silk, wool Etc.

17. What is Viscose Fiber / Rayon Fiber

Viscose is among the major man-made fibers being used in textile industry. Viscose Staple Fiber or Rayon fiber is regenerated form of weed pulp. This fiber is attained after a certain process. It is semi synthetic fiber. Technically it is regenerated cellulose.
Several types of yarns are made with it for both knitting and weaving purposes. These yarns may contain blends of viscose with many other fibers like cotton, polyester staple fiber, wool, acrylic fiber, bamboo fiber etc.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

What is Aramid Fiber, Yarn and Fabric

Complete description of Aramid Fiber

Aramid fiber is a synthetic polymer material developed and produced by DuPont. It has gained popularity in this area due to its properties and versatility – it can be used for everything from body armor to technical products that need high levels of strength, flexibility, or performance, such as sports gear and accessories

Aramid fiber is a lightweight fiber, that is almost completely made of carbon and has the specific ability to absorb very high levels of heat. It works by absorbing high levels of the sun’s heat, which can cause it to become up to 8 times thicker than steel! Aramid is strong; it can support a payload equivalent to up to 10 concrete slabs, withstanding very heavy loads from earthquakes and hurricanes.

Aramid fibers are the strongest biological fibers on the planet. They are strong and light, with high modulus, resulting in a high strength to weight ratio for the most demanding applications. They can be used as reinforcement in composite laminates, as ballistic materials in bulletproof vests, are used to make parachutes and other fabrics such as thermal protective clothing.

Aramid is a combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen gases used in the manufacture of high-performance membranes. The fibers are made from a variety of ingredients such as starch or cellulose, cellulose ester or phosphor, it is melt spun with an inner core of heat resistive material into a special high-temperature resistant fiber rope. The fibers have excellent abrasion resistance, thermal insulation properties, moisture resistance and chemical resistance.

End use of Aramid Fabrics

This material is used as end user in a huge array of applications; it is used as a filling material, insulation, reinforcement and separator.

Aramid fabric, used in the making of bulletproof vests and other defense-related items. Aramid is a lightweight and strong synthetic fiber that can be spun into paper-thin, almost transparent fabrics.

Aramid fabrics are used in areas where high performance, low weight and abrasion resistance are required. They can be used as a part of landing gear or rotor blades, or they can be used as part of protective clothing. Because of their excellent mechanical properties and light weight, they are best suited for use during space travel where circumstances demand they not only be lightweight but also require strength.

Aramid (Kevlar) is used to make aircraft, armoured vehicles and boats and marine applications. Other uses include clothing, housing, tents, flooring and large appliances. Aramid fabric may also be used in fire resistance system between buildings or concrete structures.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

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What is Nomex Fiber and Yarn. Complete Description.

Complete description of Nomex Fiber, Nomex Yarn and Nomex Fabric and its end use.

Nomex is known as one of the most versatile fibers in the world. Its long list of uses includes everything from personal protective equipment to fire-retardant insulation, to food packaging—and it even has medical benefits.

Nomex fiber is composed of the same material as fire protection suits used by firefighters. It’s incredibly tough, but also highly flame-resistant and resists decay when exposed to oxygen. It’s often used for making high-end garments like racing suits and motorcycle racing gear, as well as upholstery and other textile products.

Nomex fiber is a synthetic fiber made from coal tar, one of the byproducts of coal-fired power plants. Nomex fabric is a combination of Nomex fiber and flax or cotton thread that can be used for various textile applications from protective clothing to sailcloth.

Nomex fiber, or polytetrafluoroethylene, is a type of fluorine-containing polymer. It is a single-layer resin that can be used for several different applications including cooking utensils, food wrap, and even in the construction industry. Nomex yarn is made from nomex fibers and can be used by medical technicians who are involved with invasive procedures on their patients.

End Uses of Nomex Fabric

Nomex Fabric is with excellent tear and abrasion resistance, Nomex offers advanced fire protection for industrial environments.
Nomex fabric is used in high-performance environments, such as avionics, electronics and power systems. Its excellent properties make it ideal for electricity generation and transmission.
Nomex is one of the most commonly used fire-prevention materials. It is often used in construction sites to prevent oil fires, as in diesel engine exhaust fumes. Nomex is also used in aircraft and often as a fire retardant in garments such as flight suits and hoses.

Following are the industries commonly using Nomex Fabric.

  1. Textile coating, fiber and heat resistant.
  2. Electric arc welding fabric (electrostatic arc erosion).
  3. Used for electric arc welding on carbon steel, alloy steel, aluminum alloys and other metals.
  4. General purpose fabric suitable for general purpose applications.
  5. Used for high temperature oil refineries and petroleum refinery plants.
  6. Possibly used in hydrogen chloride production process.
  7. Used in natural gas liquefaction equipment.
  8. Used as a container filler prior to sealing with Nomex

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

Cotton Bale Weight in Different countries

The most important and noteworthy parameters of cotton bale are as follows
Cotton bale Dimension
Cotton Bale Density
Cotton Bale Weight

The following are the standard bale weights in different countries. Also please note that mostly people follow the USDA WASDE report for cotton quantity counting globally and these calculations are always based on 480 lbs basis. As bale weight in different origins vary therefore dimensions and density of bale also vary.

  • Cotton Bale weight USA 220 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Australia 227 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Brazil 220 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight India 170 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Pakistan 160 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight West Africa 180 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Uganda 180 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Tanzania 180 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Sudan 190 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Nigeria 185 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight South Africa 200 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Mexico 230 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Egypt 240~270 Kgs

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

Complete Weaving Mill Process

Introduction: Introduction to Fabric Manufacture and the Process of Weaving

In this article, we will take a look at the warp sizing process.

The weaving process is one of the most important processes in textile production. It is a complicated process and requires a lot of expertise to get it done right. The different parts of the process are warp sizing, warping, weaving, and taking up.

The weaving process is a complex process, and it can be confusing to understand all the steps of the process. With this guide, we will break down each step of the process so that you can better understand how weaving works.

The weaving process starts with yarns. Yarns are made up of two strands: one strand is called the warp and the other is called the weft. The warp is set up on a loom in order to create a pattern, while the weft is woven through it.

In order for there to be a pattern created by this method, there needs to be two sets of yarns: one set called “warp” and another set called “weft.”

What is warping section or department in a weaving mill.

The term “warp” derives from its first use as a verb meaning “to weave”. Warp threads are longitudinal threads that run parallel to each other and are stretched in one direction across a loom. A weaver who prepares the warp is called a warper; one who prepares it after it comes from the mill is sometimes called an overseer or dresser. Warping is a process of preparing the loom to weave. It is the process of winding yarn or thread onto a long, narrow, continuous piece of wood called a warp beam. The yarns are held taut and parallel to each other. Once the warp has been wound on the beam, it can be secured in place with ties or clips.

What is sizing in a weaving mill or fabric manufacturing

Sizing is a process conducted after the warping function. Here the yarn lapped on beam is coated with some material which increases in strength of yarn so that it may run smoothly during the next step of fabric manufacturing.

Weaving Section

Here starts the final stage of Raw Fabric manufacturing. The Machines used in this process are called looms. There are several types of looms being used to produce fabric. We will introduce you to some mainly used weaving machines or looms in this article.

  1. What is Auto Loom or how an Auto Loom works:

    The auto loom function was invented by Charles Weldon in 1814. It was an improvement on a previous invention called the flying shuttle, which required a person to move it back and forth manually. The machine consists of two sets of threads, one set for each warp, that are stretched over and through a series of heddles and then attached to a shuttle that moves back and forth across the width of the fabric. The shuttle is controlled by cams on a rotating shaft with different patterns for each type of weave.
  2. What is Shuttle Less Loom or how a Shuttle Less Loom works:

    A shuttle is a device that holds the weft yarn, which is threaded through the warp yarns. A shuttle less loom function is a type of loom that does not require a shuttle to carry weft yarn. The first loom was invented around 4000 BC and it consisted of two sticks with threads stretched between them. It was used for weaving cloth by hand. The process of weaving cloth on these looms was slow, tedious, and required much skill. The invention of the shuttle less loom function in 1738 significantly changed this process and made it much quicker and easier.
  3. What is Air Jet Loom or how an Air Jet Loom works:

    The air jet loom is a type of loom that is more advanced than the conventional loom. It is used for weaving fabrics that are usually made from synthetic fibers. The air jet loom functions by blowing compressed air through a nozzle to create loops of yarn on the surface of the fabric. This process is known as looping and it resembles sewing in many ways. It creates loops by pressing the needle against the fabric’s surface and then releasing it to pull up a loop of yarn before repeating this process.

    Air jet looms are used to weave fabric. They use air jets instead of typical brushes or rollers. Air jet looms are also faster than most other looms, allowing production times to be much shorter.
  4. What is Water Jet Loom or How a water Jet Loom works:

    The water jet loom is a type of loom that is used in the textile industry for weaving fabrics. It was invented by the Swedish engineer, Bengt A. Malmqvist in the 1950s and has been improved on since then. The water jet loom functions by using a high-pressure water jet to produce its weft yarns.

    The water jet loom is a unique tool in the world of weaving. It uses the power of high-pressure water to create an intricate and diverse range of designs. Fabric woven on an air jet loom is stronger, more flexible and has better textural properties than traditional weaving.
  5. What is Rapier Loom or How a Rapier Loom works:

    Rapier looms are a type of power loom and they can be used to weave products such as tablecloths, rugs, and clothing. An ideal laptop for craft weaving is the HP w19i rapier loom. It offers maneuverability, flexibility and a sturdy design to ensure optimal performance while weaving on the go. Power looms use a series of wires that power your material through the weaving process; shuttle looms utilize this same concept but use shuttles that slide across the fabric rather than a series of wires.

    Rapier loom is a special type of power loom, with a slanted blade. It was used to propel the shuttle through between two sets of heddles, or to make the textile threads stretch out over one row of wood batten and then onto another row of batten at the other end of the loom. The term “rapier-loom” (or “rapier”) acquired its name from these blades that were designed so that the threads would be caught, or perhaps not caught at all, by these lower blades and then propelled into the shedder called “heddle bar”.

    The rapier loom is a hand-woven textile that uses a shuttle to weave individual threads. The rapier loom is most commonly used in the making of rugs, but it can also be used to make decorative fabrics, wall coverings and area carpets

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

If you are interested in learning about the yarn manufacturing process of spinning process Please Click Here

How a Spinning Mill Works (Complete spinning mill process)

This is a process of converting raw cotton into a more usable form.

In the first stage, raw cotton is mixed with water in order to remove dirt and impurities. The mixture is then sent through a series of machines called ‘blow room’ and ‘carding’. In the blow room, air is blown to make the cotton fluffy. This process makes it easier for the carding machine to separate out fibers of different lengths. The carded fiber is then compressed into slivers which are spun together to form yarns.
Spinning is a process that converts raw materials, such as cotton, wool, or flax, into a continuous strand of yarn. The process is carried out in four steps: carding, drawing out, spinning and twisting.

Below are the details of some major sections or departments used in a spinning mill to convert the fiber into yarn.

In the carding process the raw material is first broken down into small pieces and then it is cleaned from the impurities like trash, dead fiber, dust and dirt. After this cleaning process the cleaned cotton is converted into sliver form. This sliver is stored and carried forward to the next section in canes.

The carding machines separate the raw material into a web of long fibers called sliver. The process starts by drawing slivers from the carding machine. The slivers are then taken to the drawing machines where this sliver is reprocessed to make it softer, straight and variation is decreased by using several canes of sliver into one row.

It is a process in which the fibers are passed through a series of rotating brushes. The brushes pull out the shorter fibers and leave behind the longer ones, which are then wound onto bobbins in the forms of laps.
The most common type of machine used for combing is called a comber.

The simplex frames pull the slivers out to make them thinner and longer, while being twisted together to form roving.

The roving is then taken to the spinning frames where it is stretched out and twisted together even more tightly to produce yarn. In the spinning mill process, yarn is spun into thread by a spinning machine. The spinning machine is called a ring frame and it includes four parts: the spindle, the flyer, the bobbin and the doffer.
The spindle is attached to a rotating drive shaft that is powered by an electric motor. The flyer is a large rotating cylinder with many slots in it that catches thread as it comes off of the spindle. The bobbin holds all of the thread coming off of the flyer and stores it until it can be wound onto a small container called bobbin

Then the yarn bobbins are converted into big yarn cones to their final shape.

Then these cones are brought to the packing department. Packing is being done in both mechanical and manual form. most common packing are carton packing, PP bag packing and pallets.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

Major faults in Dyed and Printed Fabrics

The causes of these faults can be classified into four categories

  1. Poor quality of dyeing processes
  2. Poor quality of printing processes
  3. Shortcomings in finishing processes
  4. Poor quality of raw materials

Following is the list of the major problems or faults commonly found in printed or dyed fabrics

  • Horizontal lines
  • Shade variation
  • Dirt/stains
  • Uneven dyeing
  • Drop stitches
  • Misprinting
  • Crease marks
  • Barre
  • Flushing / Wicking
  • Bleeding
  • Misfits
  • Stick-ins
  • Double printing
  • Scrimps

What are Horizontal lines in Printed or Dyed Fabric:
Horizontal lines on fabric are usually caused by a fault in the weaving process, such as when the warp yarns were not properly aligned.

What is Shade variation in Printed or Dyed Fabric:
This is when one side of the fabric is lighter than the other and can be caused by a variety of things, such as improper dyeing or printing, or variations in heat during processing.

Dirt or Stains in Dyed or Printed Fabric:
Dirt/stains on fabric are usually caused by contact with soil, food, or other materials that leave an unwanted mark on it. Uneven dyeing:

Uneven Dyeing:
Uneven dyeing can be due to a variety of factors including uneven application of colorant; uneven absorption of colorant; or variation in temperature during processing.

Drop Stitches:
Drop stitches are a type of fault that happens when the thread is not secured correctly. This can happen at any point in the process, and it can be difficult to identify the problem before it has been completed.

Misprinting in Dyed or Printed Fabrics:
Misprinting is when fabric is printed with an incorrect pattern or color. It typically happens because of a printer error or human error during printing.

Crease marks:
Crease Marks are caused by folding fabric that has been improperly pressed or folded. They are often considered as a fault because they will often show through after the garment has been sewn together and may look unsightly on the finished product.

Barre in dyed or Printed Fabric:
Barre is a type of fault that happens when there is too much tension on one side of a woven fabric and not enough on the other side. Sometime this problem also occurs due to blend variation in yarn used in fabric weaving.

Flushing or Wicking:
This is due to low viscosity of print paste. The ink or dye in the paste does not stay at the bottom of the screen but instead moves up and down.

Colour Bleeding in Dyed or Printed Fabric:
When a fabric has two different colours, one colour will bleed into another causing a new colour to be formed. This can happen due to many reasons such as low viscosity of print paste, overprinting and ink spread.

Misfits in Printed or Dyed Fabric:
These are small dots that appear on the fabric when there is an irregularity in printing process such as with overprinting, ink spread etc.

Stick-ins and double printing:
Stick-ins are small pieces of fabric that have been left behind by an operator who was cutting or sewing the material.

Double printing is when a pattern has been printed on both sides of a piece of fabric without being flipped over, which will create an upside down pattern on one side and an inverted one on the other side.

Finally, look for scrimps: these are small pieces of thread that have not been completely cut off after sewing and can be found anywhere on the fabric.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

Major fabric faults in weaving fabric

The fabric industry is a very large and important part of the clothing industry. The production of fabric starts with the manufacturing of yarns. There are many different types of fabrics, but they all have one thing in common: they are woven from yarns. Fabrics can be made from natural or synthetic fibers, or a combination of both. They can also be woven or knitted. The type determines the type of fabric and quality of fiber used to make it and the weave it is made in. Fabrics can be used for many purposes, such as clothing, upholstery, drapery, bedding and other household items such as curtains and tablecloths.

Grey fabric is a type of fabric that is not dyed. This means that the natural white color is preserved in the fabric and it will have no color variation. The main difference between white and grey fabrics is that grey fabrics can be used for multiple purposes such as making clothes, curtains, and bed sheets. Fabric faults are the most common problem that a fabric can have. Fabric faults can occur as a result of many factors. Some of these factors include the quality of the fabric, how it was handled, and how it was dyed. Fabric faults are a major concern for any fashion designer. The fabric may not be perfect, but these faults can make the garment look shabby and cheap.

The main types of fabric faults are:
Miss Pick
Starting Mark
Coarse Pick
Coarse End
Selvedge Defect
Lose End
Sizing Stain
Increase Density

What is Miss Pick in Fabric?

Miss pick: Miss pick refers to a defect in which one or more weft yarns were missed during weaving process. Selvedge defect: This defect occurs when there are missing weft yarns at one or both edge of cloth due to warp thread. or Miss picks happen when the yarn is not properly picked up by the loom and is then woven into the fabric in a way that leaves an open space in between two rows of weft yarns.

What is a Starting Mark in Fabric

A starting mark is when a weft thread starts from an incorrect position on the warp beam. or
Starting marks are when there is an indentation on one side of the fabric caused by a starting shuttle being used to start weaving at one end instead of both ends.

What are floats in Fabric?

Floats are sections of yarn that hang off the selvedge of a fabric, which are created when there’s not enough space on either side of the fabric to keep them in place during weaving.

What are Cracks in Fabric

Cracks are caused by a variety of issues, including too much tension during weaving or improper drying after being washed.

What is Coarse Pick in Fabric

coarse pick is a result of the machine that was used to weave or knit the fabric. It can cause threads to be picked up from other parts of the fabric and woven into it.

What is Coarse End in Fabric

A coarse end occurs when the yarn, which was woven into the fabric, has not been properly cut off from the loom. This can cause problems such as fraying or unraveling of threads on the edge of cloth.

What is Selvedge Defect in Fabric?

Selvedge defect is a result of poor-quality control during weaving or knitting process. It occurs when one side of a fabric is not trimmed properly and threads are left on one side.

What is Lose End in Fabric

Lose end is caused by machine malfunctioning during weaving or knitting process, which leaves some threads loose on one side of a cut piece.

What is sizing Stain in Fabric

A sizing stain is a type of fabric fault where the fabric is treated with a sizing agent before weaving. Either too much or too little sizing agent can cause it. The most common way to identify a sizing stain is by looking at the back of the fabric. If there are small, white spots on the back, then it is likely that there was too much sizing agent applied to the fabric and it will shrink more than other fabrics in the wash. If there are large, white spots on the back, then it is likely that there was not enough sizing agent applied to the fabric and it will not shrink as much as other fabrics in a washing machine.

What is Increase Density in Fabric

Increase Density. This problem indicates that fabric has more picks or ends at some certain piece of fabric than the required standards.

What is Organic Cotton NOP and NPOP Certificate

Organic cotton is a type of cotton that is grown without the use of chemical pesticides, herbicides, or other synthetic chemicals.

NOP Organic Cotton Description.

(NOP) is an abbreviation of National Organic Program. Organic cotton that has been certified to be grown without the use of any prohibited substances. It is a federal regulatory program for enforcing consistent national standards for organic products related to agricultural items sold in the United States. USDA and certifying authorities work to make sure that all procedures are followed properly to retain the confidence of end users through the integrity working and organic seal of USDA.

NPOP Organic Cotton Description

(NPOP) is an abbreviation of National Program for Organic Production. Organic cotton that has been certified to be grown without the use of prohibited substances and has also been certified to have been produced in compliance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program regulations. It is managed by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). APEDA is helping the organic product sellers to promote their products under several schemes.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

Yarn Test Results Tensorapid and Tensojet

Tensorapid and tensojet yarn testing parameters


The tensorapid and tensojet are two of the most used instruments in textile testing labs today. They provide an excellent opportunity to measure breaking force, elongation, rkm and many other key indicators of quality. Here are some key points regarding these measurements: Breaking Force is a measure of the strength of a strand at its point of failure. Elongation is a measure of how much tension was applied to a strand before it breaks. RKM is calculated from the difference between the measured and theoretical breaking force divided by breaking force multiplied by 100%. This gives us an indication as to whether or not there is any slippage between strands within our sample that would cause skewing in our results

The tensojet and tensorapid are two of the most used instruments in textile testing labs today.

The tensorapid and tensojet are two of the most used instruments in textile testing labs today. These instruments measure warp, weft, and fill yarns, as well as fabrics on a loom. They also test for colorfastness, washability, shrinkage and other properties that affect your finished product.

These tools allow you to test yarns at any point during their production cycle from raw material through production phase to finished goods before they go into stores or onto consumers’ hands!

They provide an excellent opportunity to measure breaking force, elongation, rkm and many other key indicators of quality.

A tensorapid and tensojet yarn test provides an excellent opportunity to measure breaking force, elongation, rkm and many other key indicators of quality.

The tensorapid machine has a minimum diameter of 10mm and a maximum tension of 10N/cm2. The tensojet machine has a maximum tension between 200N/cm2 and 300N/cm2.

Here are some key points regarding these measurements.
  • Breaking force is the amount of force required to cause a strand to break at its point of failure. The breaking force is measured in pounds per inch (lbs/in).
  • Elongation is how much tension was applied to a strand before it broke. It can be expressed as a percentage or as an actual length measurement. The elongation measurement should be taken from 5% or higher on each side of the yarn after wrapping, so if you have multiple wraps on your test piece then it’s best to measure from halfway through each one separately rather than just measuring one wrap instead!
What is breaking force in yarn.
Breaking Force is a measure of the strength of a strand at its point of failure.

Breaking Force is a measure of the strength of a strand at its point of failure. It is calculated using the formula:

breaking force = (density x length) / 2.2

What is elongation in yarn.
Elongation is a measure of how much tension was applied to a strand before it breaks.

Elongation is a measure of how much tension was applied to a strand before it breaks. It’s measured in percentage and can be used as an indicator of the quality of the yarn.

Elongation is not only useful for determining if your strand has been over-stretched and will break within its lifespan, but also what type of yarn it is and how many times you need to test your new batch before sending it out into production.

What is RKM in yarn.
RKM is calculated from the difference between the measured and theoretical breaking force divided by breaking force multiplied by 100%. This gives us an indication as to whether or not there is any slippage between strands within our sample that would cause skewing in our results.
Classimate Yarn Testing Report

The report is broken down into three categories:

  • Sample Attributes – This section includes information about the yarn, including its length and diameter. It also lists any defects or damage detected during testing.
  • Yarn Testing Parameters – In this section, you can find out how much force was required to break a length of yarn (fiber diameter), as well as any other relevant information such as tensile strength and elongation at breakage points.
  • Visualization Tools – This area provides an overview of all results from your test run and allows users to analyze them in more detail by clicking on various features within each analysis category listed above.[

The above analysis shows that there is a significant difference between these two yarns with respect to their breaking force, elongation and RKM values. This could mean that one of them may not be as good as the other and therefore require different treatments before they are used in production processes.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

For complete understanding of Uster results of yarn please Click Here

Complete description of yarn test results on Uster machine

Uster yarn testing parameters detail


Uster yarn testing parameters are used to test the uniformity in yarn with the help of a highly complex testing machine that has the capability to determine the variation in yarn even less than one denier. It is important to note that Uster Quality Factor (UQF) is not a single number but an umbrella term for all those factors which affect uniformity and other imperfection parameters from raw material till finished product. It also includes skill of machine operators as well as other factors like temperature and humidity conditions etc., whose effect on uniformity cannot be ignored during testing process.

What is U% in Yarn:

Uster Quality Factor (%) is the test of the uniformity in yarn with the help of a highly complex testing machine that has the capability to determine the variation in yarn even less than one denier.

Uster Quality Factor (%) is the test of the uniformity in yarn with the help of a highly complex testing machine that has the capability to determine the variation in yarn even less than one denier. Uster Quality Factor is measured based on tensile strength and elongation of sample at break point.

Uster quality factor will be determined for each sample by taking its own weight, dividing it by its diameter and multiplying this number by 100%. The result will be divided by 1,000 (1% = 0.01).

What are Thin Places in Yarn:

The thin place is the proportion of thin places on yarn and it is expressed as a percentage.

In this section, we will discuss the thin place. The thin place is the proportion of thin places on yarn and it is expressed as a percentage.

The “thin” place refers to areas in which there are no defects but just interspersed knots or strings that do not form loops. A large percentage of these defects can be removed by one or two passes with a carded comb through these areas, however you may need more than this if there are many different types of defects present (such as broken threads).

What are Thick Place in Yarn:

The thick place is the proportion of thick places on yarn and it is expressed as a percentage.

The thick place is the proportion of thick places on yarn and it is expressed as a percentage.

The thickness of yarn can be measured in three ways:

  • Thickness at break (TBT) which is determined by breaking tweezers into two pieces and determining how many times they can be broken before they break. If a tweezer breaks more times than specified, then that means there are more than 3/8″ (1 cm) per meter.

Description or definition of Neps+200 in Yarn:
The number of neps+200 is the count of knots bigger than 200 micron which are present on every linear meter of yarn.

The neps+200 is the count of knots bigger than 200 micron which are present on every linear meter of yarn. It is expressed as a percentage, determined by Uster Tester 3 and Tester 5 machines.

Neps+200 value can be used to determine the quality of yarn in terms of its potential as a warp material for next production phase (sewing).

Description of Hairiness in Yarn:

Uster Hairiness Test Measures number of extra fibers sticking outside from yarn surface per meter length.

The hairiness test is a measure of the number of extra fibers sticking outside from yarn surface per meter length.

The hairiness test is done by applying pressure on the yarn sample and measuring how much it swells up under this pressure.

The higher the number, the more likely that your yarn will be suitable for knitting or weaving with natural fiber materials such as wool, silk and cotton as well as synthetic ones such as nylon or polyester.

What is U CV% in Yarn (Complete Definition):

Short name for Uster CV% which stands for coefficient variation produced by Uster Tester 3 and Tester 5 machines. It is the overall measure for all those parameters which affect uniformity and other imperfection parameters.

The Uster CV% is the overall measure for all those parameters which affect uniformity and other imperfection parameters. It can be used to identify the quality of yarn. The CV% is calculated as follows:

  • CV% = U% + tp% + th% + neps+200 + sh% + cvm%.

Meaning of IPI in yarn. How to calculate or find IPI in yarn.

In Normal spun yarns IPI is the total of Thin(-50%)+Thick(+50%) and Neps(+200%)

Description of SH% in Yarn:
Short name for Shaft Holes, a defect produced by spinning machine due to rubbing between two components at high speed. It results in reduction in strength as well as leads to produce weak parts in yarn which can break anytime during post-spinning operations.

Shaft holes are caused by rubbing of the two components at high speed. It results in reduction in strength as well as leads to produce weak parts in yarn which can break anytime during post-spinning operations.

Definition and description of Yarn Strength:
Strength stands for how strong a material is i.e, its resistance against breaking or tearing apart under tension or pressure.

Strength is the measure of how strong a material is, i.e., its resistance against breaking or tearing apart under tension or pressure. It’s measured in grams per denier (g/d).

Strength is used to determine whether yarns are suitable for use in certain applications and materials. The tensile strength of a material determines how much force can be applied without causing it to break; thus, higher values indicate greater strength.

Complete Yarn Testing Report

The yarn testing report is a comprehensive document that contains all the information you need to understand your sample. It includes:

  • Information about the yarn type and brand of the yarn
  • Details of how to conduct test procedures, including which machine settings should be used and what tests should be conducted (such as tensile strength or washability)
  • Results from measuring all parameters associated with each of these tests, including tear index and smoothness index


Uster yarn testing parameters are important in assessing the quality of a yarn and it can be used to identify any defects present on the yarn.

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Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

What is Uniformity Index UNF in cotton testing?

Uniformity Index of UNFI is a ration of mean length with upper half mean length. it is calculated by HVI or Fibrogram cotton testing instruments.

We are giving the following details for the ideal or poor counts of Uniformity.
1. Uniformity Index of Unf below 77 is considered very low or poor uniformity.
2. Uniformity index between the range of 77 to 80 is called low uniformity.
3. Uniformity Index Unf from 80 to 84 is considered medium level. Mostly normal quality cotton contains this range.
4. Uniformity Index 85 to 87 is considered high level uniformity.
5. Uniformity Index above 87 is considered a very high level of uniformity.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

What is (SFI) Short Fiber Index In cotton HVI report.

SFI Short fiber index is a very important parameter in cotton results as it determined the ratio of short fiber in cotton. SFI indicates the %age of fiber having less than half inch length. This ratio is counted on High Volume Instrument HVI, one of the latest and best cotton testing instruments being used in the textile sector. The higher SFI is usually considered bad in cotton results.

SFI below 6.00 is an indication that cotton has very less short fiber which is good for cotton consumers. But this sort of cotton is rarely available.

Normally and mostly cotton contain SFI between the range of 6 to 9 and it’s acceptable for most cotton buyers.

SFI short fiber index from 10 to 13 is considered a little higher side ratio but to some extent acceptable for the cotton consumers.

SFI short fiber index above 14 is usually not acceptable for yarn manufacturers who want to make fine quality yarns and they avoid buying cotton with such high value of SFI.