Spun yarn made from cotton or man made fibers can be described using several parameters. Here is a list of some common parameters used to characterize spun cotton yarn:
- Yarn Count: It refers to the thickness of the yarn and is typically measured in units of “count.” The most commonly used count systems for cotton are Ne (number English), Nm (number metric), and Tex.
- Twist: It refers to the number of turns per unit length of the yarn. The twist can be expressed as “S-twist” or “Z-twist,” depending on the direction of the twist.
- Strength: It is a measure of the force required to break the yarn and is typically measured in grams per tex (g/tex) or pounds-force (lb-f).
- Evenness: It is a measure of the uniformity of the yarn thickness and is typically expressed as a percentage. The lower the evenness percentage, the less uniform the yarn.
- Hairiness: It refers to the amount of protruding fibers or “hairs” on the surface of the yarn. Hairiness is typically measured by counting the number of protruding fibers per unit length of yarn.
- Twist per Inch (TPI): It refers to the number of twists per inch of yarn. TPI is commonly used in the United States to measure twist.
- Elongation: It refers to the amount of stretch or extension the yarn undergoes before breaking and is typically expressed as a percentage of the original length.
- Abrasion Resistance: It refers to the ability of the yarn to withstand wear and tear due to rubbing or friction.
- Color: It refers to the color of the yarn and can be described using a color system such as Pantone or the Natural Color System (NCS).
These parameters are used by textile manufacturers and buyers to determine the quality and suitability of spun yarn for different applications.