Table Tag: fiber length

What is zero twist yarn and how is it produced?

Zero twist yarn is a type of yarn that is made by twisting two or more strands of yarn together in the opposite direction to that in which they were originally spun. This gives the yarn a higher twist rate and makes it stronger and more durable. It is often used in carpets, towels and rugs because it can withstand heavy wear and tear.

In this process initially yarn is produced on spinning machines like a normal procedure and then it is doubled with a yarn called PVA. PVA is a yarn which dissolved in water after washing at a certain temperature. After doubling the normal yarn with PVA it is untwisted on a twisting machine. This process untwists the yarn and PVA lapped this yarn and keep the fibers joint with each other. Later after converting it into fabric it is washed in hot water and the PVA is dissolved in this process. This fabric is very soft and skin friendly.

Below are given some more details about its importance and end use of zero twist yarn.

Zero twist yarn is a type of yarn that is made without any twisting. The fibers are simply laid out in parallel and held together by a binder. This results in a yarn that is very strong and does not easily break or fray. Zero twist yarns are often used in carpeting and other heavy-duty applications.

When it comes to yarn, there are a lot of different types on the market. But what exactly is zero twist yarn? Zero twist yarn is made from fibers that are twisted together in the opposite direction of traditional yarn. This process makes the yarn stronger and less likely to break or unravel. It also gives it a unique texture that’s different from other types of yarn. If you’re looking for a durable yarn that’s still soft and has a unique texture, zero twist yarn is a great option. It’s perfect for projects like blankets, hats, and scarves. And because it’s so strong, it can even be used for projects like rugs or upholstery.

Zero twist yarn is a type of yarn that is made without any twisting. The yarn is made by first spinning the fiber into a long, thin strand. This strand is then fed through a machine that twists it into a coil. The coil is then fed through another machine that untwists it, resulting in a yarn that is both strong and smooth. Zero twist yarn is often used in applications where strength and durability are important, such as in rope or twine. It can also be used in applications where a smooth surface is desired, such as in knitting or crochet.

Cotton Bale Weight in Different countries

The most important and noteworthy parameters of cotton bale are as follows
Cotton bale Dimension
Cotton Bale Density
Cotton Bale Weight

The following are the standard bale weights in different countries. Also please note that mostly people follow the USDA WASDE report for cotton quantity counting globally and these calculations are always based on 480 lbs basis. As bale weight in different origins vary therefore dimensions and density of bale also vary.

  • Cotton Bale weight USA 220 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Australia 227 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Brazil 220 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight India 170 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Pakistan 160 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight West Africa 180 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Uganda 180 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Tanzania 180 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Sudan 190 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Nigeria 185 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight South Africa 200 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Mexico 230 Kgs
  • Cotton Bale Weight Egypt 240~270 Kgs

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

How to read HVI (High Value Instrument) Cotton Test Report


HVI parameters are used to measure the quality of cotton bales. These parameters are important for grading and sorting. The measurement process is divided into two different stages, which includes:

  • First stage of HVI parameters measurement procedure involves taking an initial reading on a sample of raw material using a standardised method developed by HVI.
  • Second stage involves repeating this measurement on each sampled bale in order to obtain a final value which represents the overall quality attributes of that particular batch at that point in time

1) Mic – Micronaire

Here are some of the interesting points about Micronaire:

  • Micronaire is a measure of the fineness of cotton.
  • It can be calculated using the following equation:

M = D/1000, where M is micronaire; D is diameter; and 1000 is an average value for each filament diameter in millimeters.

2) Length(MM) – Staple Length In MM

Length of staple is the length of individual fibers in a cotton bale. It is an indication of the quality of cotton. A long staple has more fiber length than a short one, which means it will be less likely to break when processed into bales or even into yarns.

Longer staples are generally considered better quality because they don’t break easily during processing and have more cotton luster (color). Longer staples also tend to have fewer impurities, so you can expect less shrinkage when you wash them at home with your machine set on a gentle setting as opposed to washing clothes using hot water alone—which can cause shrinkage due to shrinking caused by friction between different surfaces rubbing together while drying out after being washed.


Strength is a parameter that measures the tensile strength of the fabric. Strength is measured in g/tex, which is equal to how many grams of force can be applied to a single tex of fabric before it breaks. When you look at your garment’s label, you may see this term and wonder what it means. The answer lies within the HVI and its myriad of parameters!

As seen above, strength = Gms per Tex (or Gm/T)

4) Elasticity % – Elasticity %

Elasticity is a measure of the amount of energy required to stretch a fabric. It is measured in percentage, and it has units of Joules per meter.

The elasticity is calculated using the equation:

  • Original length (m) = Length after stretching (m) – Length before stretching (m).
  • Extension (m) = Original length * Elasticity %/100%.

5) Unit Weight (G/M2)-Unit Weight

UNIT WEIGHT is the weight of the fabric per unit area. It is expressed in g/m2 and is used to calculate the price of the fabric.

6) Trash %- Trash %

Trash % is a measure of the foreign matter content in a bale. It is measured as a percentage of the weight of the bale, and can be determined by weighing or measuring it with a hydrometer or manometer. If you have access to both types of equipment (hydrometers are used for testing liquids while manometers are used for measuring gases), then you can determine how much trash your product has by using one type at certain intervals throughout its life cycle and comparing them against each other.

Trash % is also important because it determines how much money you lose when selling an HVI product because there’s no way around this rule: if your product has too much trash content, then you won’t get paid enough money on top of what it costs to produce those materials!

7) GPT – Grade Progressing Trend Measurement

GPT is a measure of the quality of cotton fibre. It is an important parameter for cotton quality and it can be defined as the ratio between weight and length.

GPT is a measure of the strength and elasticity of cotton fibres. It also expresses how much force it takes to break or rupture a given piece (i.e., breaking point). GPT values range from 0% (no strength) to 100%, which means that all fibres in your sample have been completely broken apart by one another during testing procedures

8) Colorgrade Days(Dy)- Colour Dye Date Value


This parameter is used to determine the colour grade days. The value of this parameter can be used as a guide in determining the dyeing date. If you have more than one colour material, then you can use this parameter for each material separately.

HVI Parameters Measure Final Quality Attributes Of Cotton Bale

HVI parameters are used to measure final quality attributes of cotton bale. These parameters include:

  • Weight (W)
  • Length (L)
  • Width (W)


The HVI parameters are taken into consideration in order to evaluate the cotton bale’s final quality attributes. The HVI parameters are used by cotton manufacturers to determine which processing steps need to be undertaken, or whether they should improve the quality of the material further.

Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan

What is staple length in cotton? Complete definition.

Staple length is the major characteristic of cotton fiber on which cotton is traded and its price is determined. Staple length is the length of fiber. This parameter of cotton is so important that every consumer has to first decide what yarn he wants to produce and what staple length of cotton will be required to produce this yarn. In different origins staple length of fiber is spoken with different length scales like inches, MM milli meters and in USA mostly 32nds.

Here are a few staple lengths and their importance and definition also described for better understanding.

Staple length below 27 mm is considered short staple cotton and mostly used for yarn counts below 20/1 ring yarns or low quality or cheaper yarns like open end depending on the requirements of demands.

Major portion of global cotton consists of the staple length between the range of 27 to 30 mm fiber length. This sort of cotton is used to produce medium to good quality yarns. Count range mostly from 20/1 to 40/1 carded or combed for weaving or knitting.

Above this is long staple cotton with staple length 30mm to 33 mm. This cotton is used for producing fine quality yarns from 40/1 to 80/1 combed and compact yarns which are used for light weight fine quality fabrics.

Cotton with 33mm above is called ELS or Extra-long staple cotton used for very fine yarns, high strength or tenacity yarns.

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Author: Afzaal Khadim Khan
Owner: Textiles Bar
Lahore Pakistan